The $5 million dollar program will support up to five awards annually. We anticipate the awards will be valued up to $1.5 million each, and dispersed over a three year period. All awards will be selected by a rigorous, two-stage merit review process: the awardees of the first cycle of the program will be announced in January 2016.The awards are likely to be for projects that are technically and/or managerially complex. Therefore, funds will be awarded through a cooperative agreement, which gives the Program Secretariat additional responsibilities over and above what is usually associated with a grant. The Principal Investigator (PI) has control and directs the project, with the assistance of any Co-PIs. The PI and the PI’s institutions/organizations have fiscal responsibility for the award and primary management responsibility for the conduct of the proposed activities. The cooperative agreements will state the nature and extent of expected Program Secretariat involvement, such as receipt of periodic reports and conduct of regular evaluations. A detailed agreement ensures that the responsibilities of each party are fully understood. Support for each year of the Cooperative Agreement for the award will be contingent upon a satisfactory annual review of the progress report. In addition, site visit(s) will be held to evaluate the progress and future plans, with an emphasis on the quality of the research and expected ability to meet its goals and objectives of the award.